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Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds.The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels.
For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.
Primary stuttering behaviors are the overt, observable signs of speech disfluencies, including repeating sounds, syllables, words or phrases, silent blocks and prolongation of sounds.
In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe.
This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying (especially in children), having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech.
It has been described in terms of the analogy to an iceberg, with the immediately visible and audible symptoms of stuttering above the waterline and a broader set of symptoms such as negative emotions hidden below the surface.